Dahshur, is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for the pyramids located there.
During the Old Kingdom the "Bent Pyramid" and the "Red Pyramid" were built there during the reign of Pharaoh Sneferu, father of Khufu. The unusual shape of the Bent Pyramid is unique, and represents a transitional pyramid form believed to have been the result of an engineering crisis encountered during its construction. The Red Pyramid is the world's first true smooth-sided pyramid.
Dahshur was Egypt's royal necropolis during the reign of the 12th Dynasty king Amenemhat II, and later Middle Kingdom kings also built pyramids there.
- The pyramid of Amenemhat II is now badly damaged, but next to it were found several undisturbed tombs of royal women still containing a large amount of jewellery.
Amenemhat II's successor, Sesostris II, built his pyramid at Lahun.
- The pyramid of Sesostris III was part of a huge complex with several smaller pyramids of royal women along with another pyramid to the south. In a gallery tomb next to this pyramid were found two treasures of the king's daughters.
- Amenemhat III bult the "Black Pyramid" at Dahshur. It is thought that this was abandoned since Amenemhat was buried at Hawara. However, although now badly eroded, it remains the most imposing monument at the site after the two Sneferu pyramids. The polished granite pyramidion or capstone of the Black Pyramid is on display in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Next to the pyramid was found the partly disturbed tomb of 13th Dynasty king Hor and the undisturbed burial place of Nubhetepti-khered, possibly his daughter.
There are several other pyramids of the 13th Dynasty at Dahshur. but only that of Ameny Qemau has been excavated so far.
Extensive cemeteries of officials of the Old and Middle Kingdom have also been found around Dahshur's pyramids.
Dahshur in Global Egyptian Museum
Dahshur in Artefacts of Excavation (The Griffith Institute)
Location of Dahshur
Models by site for Dahshur