Model Type
combination: baking / brewing
Breasted: 3. London, British Museum, 40915 Eleventh dynasty. Largest model of bread-making and brewing ever found: line of thirteen standing women grind grain, each with small red grinding stone in her hands, and larger raised grinding trough directly in front. Twelve squatting men face the line of standing women, sifting flour and perhaps making dough. Back to back to the men squat three bakers, each in front of a tall black oven. Between the ovens stand three brewers straining mash through sieves into vats. A man holding a stick in his right hand watches over the whole scene.
From tomb No. 3, Deir el Bahari. Naville, Eleventh Dynasty Temple, 1, p. 44, Pl. IX; British Museum, Guide to the 4th, 5th and 6th Egyptian Rooms p. 20. Base. 78.7 cm. x 47 cm
Naville: The furniture was in this tomb well preserved. The chief objects are a granary of the usual kind, and a model bakery and brewery of unusual type. The granary has, as usual, its small wooden men ascending the stairs with sacks of grain which they are throwing down into the sealed chambers of the granary through holes left for the purpose, while a scribe, seated in the court below, keeps tally (Pl. ix., fig. 5). In the other model, which measures 31 inches by 18.5 ( 78.7 cm x 47 cm ), we see a line of women hard at work grinding the grain with rollers which are painted red to represent red quartzite. A line of squatting men, facing the corn-grinders, sifts the grain through sieves. Back to back with them are the bakers, squatting in front of their tall black ovens, and a line of brewers placing the bread in red vats to ferment in order to make the beer. A reis stands, thong-stick in hand, overseeing the work. This fine model (Pl. ix., figs. 3, 7) has been assigned to the British Museum, and is now exhibited with the other VIth to XIIth Dynasty models of the same kind in the Fourth Egyptian Room (Case 188; No. 40915). The granary has gone to America.
BM: This model showing the baking process was placed in the tomb of King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (2055-2004 BC) to ensure that he would be provided with bread for eternity. The model is essentially schematic, showing the stages of bread-making rather than a real bakery. It is particularly interesting to learn that kings of this period felt that they needed to be equipped with these objects - not only officials and more ordinary people.
Deir el-Bahri
Pit 3
British Museum, London
Accession number
Breasted Classification
II-4-1 PREPARATION AND PROCESSING OF FOOD - Model Scenes of Baking, Brewing, and Slaughtering. - Baking and brewing in same house or room.
Base 78.7 cm x 47 cm
References (Bibliography)
BreastedJnr-1948 , II-4-1 3.
BritMuseum-1922 , p. 20
Naville-1907 , p. 44, Pl. IX
Tooley-1989 , p. 33
Museum Online Record Card
Links to Images and Other Refs



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